Ruska and the visualisation of viruses". Micron and Microscopica Acta. The photos of specimens produced are called electonmicrographs. The first electron microscope was developed in 1931 by Ernst Ruska and Max Knoll. The quality of sections depends on three factors: the environment, embedding plastic, and knife. The image displayed by an SEM maps the varying intensity of any of these signals into the image in a position corresponding to the position of the beam on the specimen when the signal was generated. "Characterising degradation of perovskite solar cells through in-situ and operando electron microscopy". Conductive coating an ultrathin coating of electrically conducting material, deposited either by high vacuum evaporation or by low vacuum sputter coating of the sample. Doi :.1007/ _41. Staining uses heavy metals such as lead, uranium or tungsten to scatter imaging electrons and thus give contrast between different structures, since many (especially biological) materials are nearly "transparent" to electrons (weak phase objects).
(photo Shigeki Watanabe and Erik Jorgensen). Li,.J.; Shao,.Y.; Zhang,.Z.; Ro,.U.; Hu,.; Bi,.H.; Geng,.; Matsuki,.; Niu,.Y.; Chen,.M. Microscopy and Microanalysis 13 (3 248249. Non-conductive materials can be imaged also by an variable pressure (or modems Past and Future environmental) scanning electron microscope. 5 Five years later (1937 the firm financed the work of Ernst Ruska and Bodo von Borries, and employed Helmut Ruska (Ernsts brother) to develop applications for the microscope, especially with biological specimens. "From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step".